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It is the visual effect of the relationships of the various objects and spaces that make up a structure to one another and to the whole.

Civil Engineering

These relationships are often governed by multiples of a standard unit of length known as a "module". Form Follows Function is the principle of design that the shape of a building or object should be primarily based upon its intended Function or Purpose. The principle is associated with modernist architecture and industrial design in the 20th century. Functionalism in architecture is the principle that buildings should be designed based solely on the purpose and function of the building. This principle is less self-evident than it first appears, and is a matter of confusion and controversy within the profession, particularly in regard to modern architecture.

Green Building - Working Together. Functional Design is a paradigm used to simplify the design of hardware and software devices such as computer software and increasingly, 3D Models.

Design Disciplines

A functional design assures that each modular part of a device has only one responsibility and performs that responsibility with the minimum of side effects on other parts. Functionally designed modules tend to have low coupling. Structure Follows Strategy is a business principle that states that the divisions, departments, teams, processes and technology of an organization are designed to achieve a firm's strategy.

Building Design Guidelines - Obsolescence. Loose Coupling system is one in which each of its components has, or makes use of, little or no knowledge of the definitions of other separate components. Subareas include the coupling of classes, interfaces, data, and services. Loose coupling is the opposite of tight coupling. Coupling in computer programming is the degree of interdependence between software modules; a measure of how closely connected two routines or modules are; the strength of the relationships between modules.

Coupling is usually contrasted with cohesion. Low coupling often correlates with high cohesion, and vice versa.

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Low coupling is often a sign of a well-structured computer system and a good design, and when combined with high cohesion, supports the general goals of high readability and maintainability Cohesion in computer science refers to the degree to which the elements inside a module belong together. In one sense, it is a measure of the strength of relationship between the methods and data of a class and some unifying purpose or concept served by that class. Modules with high cohesion tend to be preferable, because high cohesion is associated with several desirable traits of software including robustness, reliability, reusability, and understandability.

In contrast, low cohesion is associated with undesirable traits such as being difficult to maintain, test, reuse, or even understand. Cohesion is often contrasted with coupling, a different concept. High cohesion often correlates with loose coupling, and vice versa. Function in engineering is interpreted as a specific process, action or task that a system is able to perform.

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Requirements usually specifies the most important attributes of the requested system. In the Design specification documents, physical or software processes and systems are frequently the requested functions.

Recommissioning is the methodical process of testing and adjusting the aforementioned systems in existing buildings. General Contractors Cybernetics is a transdisciplinary approach for exploring regulatory systems—their structures, constraints, and possibilities. The EPO industry supports architecture, engineering and construction industries worldwide. Architecture and Vision Passivity Engineering is a property of engineering systems, used in a variety of engineering disciplines, but most commonly found in analog electronics and control systems. A passive component, depending on field, may be either a component that consumes but does not produce energy thermodynamic passivity , or a component that is incapable of power gain incremental passivity.

Why do most church facades have 3 door design with 1 big door in center with 2 small doors on either side of the big door? Triptych is a work of art usually a panel painting that is divided into three sections, or three carved panels that are hinged together and can be folded shut or displayed open. Architecture of Cathedrals and Great Churches wiki - Romanesque Architecture wiki Facade is generally one exterior side of a building, usually the front. Facadism refers to an architectural and construction practice where the facade of a building was designed or constructed separately from the rest of a building.

Vestibule or small foyer leading into a larger space, such as a lobby, entrance hall, passage, etc.

Bridge Design: Concepts and Analysis

The main purpose of building codes is to protect public health, safety and general welfare as they relate to the construction and occupancy of buildings and structures. The building code becomes law of a particular jurisdiction when formally enacted by the appropriate governmental or private authority. Regulations - Statute. City Development - Surveying - Building Analyst - Earthquakes Zoning describes the control by authority which designates legal areas in a municipality to permit and prohibit land uses.

Zoning may specify a variety of outright and conditional uses of land. It may also indicate the size and dimensions of land area as well as the form and scale of buildings. These guidelines are set in order to guide urban growth and development. International Code Council - Public Codes - Nuisance Housing Types - Location - Orientation - Design Guides Construction Permit refers to the approval needed for construction or expansion including significant renovation in some jurisdictions.

Fire Safety PDF - Fire Code PDF - Safety Engineering Planning and Zoning Commission is a local elected or appointed government board charged with recommending to the local town or city council the boundaries of the various original zoning district and appropriate regulations to be enforced therein and any proposed amendments thereto and shall collect data and keep itself informed as to the best practices generally in effect in the matter city planning and zoning to the end that it may be qualified to act on measures affecting the present and future movement of traffic, the segregation of residential and business districts and the convenience and safety of persons and property in any way dependent on city planning and zoning.

Some jurisdictions may refer to them also planning commissions, planning boards, zoning commissions, and zoning boards. The chairman of the Planning and Zoning Commission or a staff member is responsible for publishing public hearing in the newspaper about certain matters that come before the commission. Most municipal or county Planning and Zoning Commissions consist of five to seven members. This number does not include alternates. In some states, planning and zoning commissions are regional or county.

Some communities elect planning and zoning commission members. In other jurisdictions, the Planning and Zoning Commissioners are appointed by the Mayor or First Selectman of the city or town and approved by the city's legislative body, i. Please note that planning and zoning commissions may also be approving agencies for development permits, variances to the zoning code. Other jurisdictions may have separate zoning board of adjustments or appeals appointed by the governing body that perform the function instead of the planning and zoning commission doing it.

Town Ordinance. Change Order refers to the changes in the scope of work agreed to by the owner, contractor, and architect or engineer. A change order may force a new project to handle significant changes to the current project.

The Architecture of Bridge Design - David Bennett - Google книги

Change Request wiki. Warning: some contractors use change requests to charge the customer more money over the original price that was bid. So the lowest bid might not be the price you pay. Construction Fraud.


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Contractor is a person or company that undertakes a contract to provide materials or labor to perform a service or do a job. Subcontractor is an individual or in many cases a business that signs a contract to perform part or all of the obligations of another's contract. Accessory use and an accessory structure typical accessory use to a residence, like a swimming pool or a tennis court. Home Inspection is a limited, non-invasive examination of the condition of a home, often in connection with the sale of that home. Home inspections are usually conducted by a home inspector who has the training and certifications to perform such inspections.


  1. Engineering - Design - Architecture;
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  4. Table of Contents;
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  7. The inspector prepares and delivers to the client a written report of findings. The client then uses the knowledge gained to make informed decisions about their pending real estate purchase. The home inspector describes the condition of the home at the time of inspection but does not guarantee future condition, efficiency, or life expectancy of systems or components.

    International Association of Certified Home Inspectors.


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    7. Private Certifications and inspections are only as good as the people doing the inspections, and only if they are following and conforming to high quality standards, and that the inspection proves that there's no substandard materials or substandard craftsmanship. Corrupt developers love to cut corners and use low quality products just so they make more money at other peoples expense. They love to farm out to subcontractors who are unaware of the defects.

      When criminal developers don't follow building standards and exploit weak or relax regulations and use non-conforming standards or non-compliance building methods, then homeowners suffer the consequences and become victimized by greedy and narrow minded developers. Structural Engineers specialize in determining the integrity of a home or building. They evaluate problems and establish solutions. Often, homeowners are told they have structural damage that requires extensive repairs, especially older homes. The difference between a structural engineering report and an unlicensed contractor's evaluation is expertise.

      Building Performance of a building or built environment is the efficiency of functioning of buildings and the construction industry, its impact on natural environment, urban environment and its users. It is achieved through means such as architectural design values, building science, architectural engineering, efficient energy use and sustainability. Southeastern Consulting Engineers, Inc.